Edward Colston – public history in Bristol

This is an essay I wrote two years ago, on 19 April 2018, for my Masters in Local and Family History.

Discuss the public history aspects of a current news story relating to a political decision which affects the past and how it is perceived.

For over three centuries Bristol has unconsciously participated in the glorification of Edward Colston, a seventeenth century merchant whose fortune was built on the slave trade. Recently, however, the city has begun to tackle its guilt-ridden inheritance. Proposals to expunge evidence of Bristol’s discomfiting past has brought Colston and his legacy under the spotlight.

Edward Colston

Edward Colston was born in 1636 in Church Street, Bristol, the youngest son of a prominent merchant. Colston completed his education in London and served an apprenticeship with the Mercers Company. He went on to become a formidable merchant who amassed a considerable fortune through trading in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Africa, and the West Indies. Colston was increasingly involved in the slave trade, rising to become deputy governor of the notorious Royal African Company.[1] In 1682 he followed his father into Bristol’s powerful Merchant Venturers’ Society, which held a monopoly on shipping entering and leaving the Port, and was heavily involved in the slave trade. Although Colston never returned to Bristol to live, he maintained a succession of business interests there. He was a great benefactor to the city, founding two almshouses, a hospital and two schools, and making many significant donations and bequests. The Bristol corporation pronounced him ‘the highest example of Christian liberality that this age has produced, both for the extensiveness of his charities and the prudent regulation of them’.

At the very heart of Bristol, then, is a man whose fortune and beneficence was founded on slavery. This has offended modern sensibilities to the extent that a significant response has become inevitable zdf mediathek download content. Participants have become antagonists as they struggle to create new narratives with which to demystify or celebrate the city, and as they debate whether to eradicate, disguise, or open up the city’s painful wounds. In the process, Colston’s legacy has revealed underlying tensions between academic history and public history.

The Colston debate offers a platform to consider what history is, and how it is practiced, academically, professionally and by the amateur. It demonstrates how the particular field of public history can be defined. It illustrates historiography, showing how historians utilise academic sources, apply techniques and adopt theoretical approaches. It asks what history we are taught, consciously and unconsciously, by whom, and for what purpose. It begs us to question what heritage is, and to whom it belongs. Finally, it is a prime example of both the use and abuse of history as a commodity.

The airbrushing of Colston’s life story has a long history. Thomas Garrard’s biography, ‘Colston, the Philanthropist: His Life and Times’ was published in 1852, long after the abolition of the slave trade in 1838. It makes no mention of Colston’s involvement in the slave trade or the Royal African Company.[2] Indeed, educationalist Andrew Nash confirms on the (now deleted) Bristol Slavery website that Colston “went to great lengths to keep it a secret’.[3] The purpose of this essay is not, however, to conduct a Rankean ‘wie es eigentlich gewesen’ analysis of Colston’s role in the slave trade, but to consider the public history ramifications of the controversy surrounding his legacy.

History can be defined as the body of true and unadulterated facts concerning happenings in the past. However, these facts can never be externalised or recounted without the introduction of error, inaccuracy, fiction or bias zoo tycoon kostenlos downloaden vollversion. History is therefore sometimes defined as a version of past events upon which we, both academics and the historically aware public, can agree.[4] In Colston’s case there has been little agreement on any level. Participants in the debate have based their assertions on primary and secondary sources which are themselves open to critical analysis. The cultural turn has opened historians’ eyes to multiple reinterpretations of postcolonial cultural history. Colston can therefore be viewed in a variety of ways, from major personage in the history of slavery, to insignificant bit player in meta narratives of social thought and action.

History can also be defined as memory, an account or retelling of facts, which are interpreted in the context of a specific personal or cultural environment. It can be said that Colston’s supporters, rather than Colston himself, created and sustained his highly visible legacy in Bristol. Whether fully conscious, blinkered, or misled, and whether acting through genuine admiration, gratitude for his benevolence, or corporate toadying, the actions of Colston’s supporters established both the form and scale in which his memory was preserved. The Bristol Radical History Group refers to the this as the ‘cult of Colston’ created by a Victorian elite.[5]

Colston’s legacy is not only a manifestation of history, but also of public history. Public history can be defined as any practice, study, manifestation or application of history which does not take place behind the closed doors of academia. Although attracting academic comment, the Colston debate is not academically led. It is public in many senses, taking place on both the local and the national stage. According to many sources the debate began with the actions of a single protestor. He or she sprayed the words ‘slave trader’ on Colston’s statue in 1999, reputedly inspired by a speech by Dr Madge Dresser herunterladen.[6] Since then the public have become fully engaged, and their views actively sought, through polls, questionnaires, consultation processes, and social media.[7] Public history can also be defined as popular history, that is, history which the general public wishes to consume. It is accessible history, disseminated to a receptive audience. The Colston debate is certainly public in this sense. Public history is not, however, defined by the extent to which public views are taken into account. Decisions will inevitably be made in the corporate, financial, and political interest, rather than public preference.

Contrasting views of Colston neatly mirror two schools of thought on the nature of history and the range of historiographical approaches. For some, Colston is the consummate philanthropist, and his legacy is heritage, for others he is a murderer, enslaver, and kidnapper, and his legacy is inflammatory.[8] For the first group, Thomas Carlyle’s theory resonates: that history can be explained by the impact of ‘great men’. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the Marxist school of thought: the capitalist benefactor is either dismissed or demonised, since their wealth results from appropriation of productive forces. As James Kilby writes, ‘the billionaires seemingly have no answer, other than to throw money at schools, hospitals, and endless think tanks’.[9] Sitting firmly on the fence, E.H. Carr would argue that Colston should be judged by the values of his own time, and that historians should resist making any judgements about him font for openoffice. By Carr’s contention, criticism of individuals can create a collective alibi for society. Thus, criticism of Colston and other key figures in history fuels a peculiar kind of social amnesia in which society can relinquish responsibility for slavery.[10] This effect can be seen in genealogical television shows where guests are horrified to learn of their ancestors’ involvement in the slave trade, despite the fact that their nation was once complicit in slavery. In Britain this societal lack of awareness and abdication of responsibility is also embedded in years of imperialist education.

A lifeline was offered by the cultural turn in the 1970s. Thereafter a ‘new history’ moved the teaching syllabus gently away from fact-based education to a more social and cultural view. Recent developments in programmes of study emphasise the acquisition of academic skills, including understanding historical concepts and methods of enquiry.[11] This highlights the appropriateness of examining Colston’s legacy in schools. There are facts to research, concepts and theories to discuss, contexts to apply, opportunities to test analytical skills, develop a mature understanding of social and cultural context, examine moral philosophy, and relate local context to wider historical themes. Although ‘relatable’ local history can be inspiring in the classroom, if not kept under constant revision it can lead to a distorted and uncritical view of the past. History is not fixed, but can be thrown up in the air by new discoveries and viewpoints. Hence in Texas in 2010, Thomas Jefferson was summarily removed from the state curriculum, an act which ‘cast a chill on the publishing industry and endangered historical accuracy nationwide’.[12] Eliminating Colston from the syllabus would create a whole gamut of new problems. How do we teach children about colonialism and slavery if we do not investigate colonialists and slave traders? Some superb educational resources address these issues, for example Understanding Slavery, which uses source material from museum and heritage collections, and features a Bristol Case Study temple run 2 deutsch kostenlosen.[13]

However, teaching Bristol children ‘the truth’ about Colston may simply perpetuate the unthinking ‘great men, great lives’ view. Bristol is so steeped in the Colston tradition that in 2014 the Mayor of Bristol described Colston’s Girls’ School’s celebrations of Colston as ‘perverse’.[14] In 2017 the students themselves chose to remove references to Colston from their annual commemoration service.[15] Nevertheless, the principal claimed that the school’s name would be kept because it was important for pupils to ‘engage thoughtfully’ with the past.[16] Colston’s Primary School came to the opposite conclusion, governors voting in line with the stakeholders to ‘look at choosing a new name’.[17] If this trend continues, it is hopeful that in years to come teachers will no longer be held hostage to Colston’s celebrity, and his story will be taught within a broader context. Regrettably, the history of less contentious people, quietly doing extraordinary things, often suffers from inferior archival documentation. It is up to public historians to identify and disseminate these new narratives.

We should also constantly reposition outmoded narratives of past by subjecting them to modern analysis and interpretation. In heritage organisations and the heritage industry, a traditional approach has frequently produced a sanitised response to unpalatable subjects. For example, the Colston name, Colston’s statue, and the buildings he endowed, are protected by a conservative and conserving view of heritage. Historic England, which has a mandate to preserve Britain’s built heritage, exercises its responsibilities to the victims of slavery by mounting exhibitions and publishing online guides. The ‘Inclusive Heritage’ section on its website features Bristol in its ‘Sites of Memory’ collection, which briefly describes Bristol’s part in the slave trade and the legacy which remains within its built environment word designs herunterladen.[18] A frequently used strategy is to display supplementary information on statues, buildings and exhibits. The National Portrait Gallery illustrates good practice in this area.[19] However, simplistic or obvious responses should, as Trimm suggests, be shaken up by investigation of alternative lines of relation between past, present, and future.[20] We should not be afraid of asking the difficult questions. The solution is never to debate less, but to debate more, and with greater imagination.

Difficult questions certainly abound where Colston is concerned. For example, there are contentious issues surrounding blame, complicity and apology. In May 2006 when a group of intellectuals and academics debated the question ‘should Bristol apologise for slavery’, HTV’s audience were 90% in favour. Unsurprisingly, a street poll of ‘ordinary Bristolians’ found 90% against. Bristol Radical History Group remarks that if the question had been ‘Should the Society of Merchant Venturers apologise for slavery?’ there would have been a different result.[21]

A particularly thorny area is the portrayal of black and ethnic minority groups. For some, Colston’s name has come to symbolise deep racial tensions in Bristol, reflecting the experience of black and minority ethnic groups in other cities around the UK.[22] The debate has created opportunities to liberate marginalised voices, and to re-engage with black and minority ethnic history, academically, critically and politically. Whereas traditional histories of the slave trade contribute to the public history of these underrepresented groups, regrettably they do so by adding principally to the body of history which is told through negative imagery, concentrating on victimisation and oppression windows 10 auf stick downloaden. By contrast, Dr Madge Dresser identifies that there are many rich sources which illustrate how Bristol’s associations with the slave trade are ‘more pervasive and more complex than one might at first think’, highlighting in particular wills and family histories which reveal ‘complex and often contradictory attitudes about race’.[23]

The subtext in the debate is that organisations and individuals are jostling for position, competing to decide who has superior rights over Bristol’s heritage and how it is presented. Few commentators have grasped the deep rooted issues throttling the city’s capacity to change as profoundly as David Olusoga, who wrote in February 2017, ‘Bristol stands head and shoulders above the competition in its capacity to obscure its past and obfuscate its history. For three centuries, slavery has been hidden behind that wall of lies and denial…’.[24] Richard Eddy, former Conservative leader of Bristol, responded as one might expect, and far less eloquently, ‘[Olusoga’s] assertions are absurd, […] a piece of self-promotion, political posturing or to make the author of these claims feel good about themselves.’[25] The city council’s own moves to appease campaigners are probably more self aggrandising than conciliatory.[26] Polemic is rife in the debate, and the media stirs and destroys objectivity with inflammatory language: notorious, murderer, enslaver, kidnapper, toxic, furious, backlash, noxious, branded. The Countering Colston group, which calls itself, ‘an active network of concerned Bristol residents’, is also guilty of linguistic licence. For example, it incites antagonism by stating that Colston’s name is ‘celebrated’, rather than ‘remembered’ or ‘named’.[27] Yet where the audience demands, Countering Colston uses academic language, seeking ‘an ongoing examination of historical narrative and a change of attitudes and culture.’[28]

Analysis of the debate has revealed how the participants have cherry-picked aspects of Colston’s story to support their highly polarised attitudes, and used a variety of tactics to garner publicity and disseminate their views, from academic writing to radical action. Bristol’s history has been commodified by all participants in the debate to support their priorities, whether promoting tourism, seeking publicity, currying favour, creating media buzz, righting wrongs, campaigning against slavery and racism past and present, salving consciences, and for the ‘snowflake generation’, simply doing what is politically correct Download videos with edge.

Of course it is never advisable to ignore or eradicate history, or indeed heritage. John Oldfield, of the Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation, said, ‘The danger is we end up erasing the past rather than problematising it’.[29] Each action and reaction which has drawn attention to the town’s involvement in the slave trade, has also precipitated valuable debate, causing even academics to pull away from objectivity towards judgement and opinion. Underlying tensions between academic history and public history have been revealed. Indeed, the debate is full of blurred lines between academic, social, cultural, and popularist interpretations of history. Beneath the diatribe, we can see a slow but steady reinvention of the city’s identity, brought about by the various manifestations and applications of public history. The gradual process of dismantling Colston’s reputation in the city has produced a new people’s heritage which challenges the stultifying received heritage of the social elite. As Olusoga writes, ‘Those who want to rename Colston Hall […] are campaigners for a fuller, more honest remembrance of history, not its erasure.’[30] Here is something on which both academic and public historians alike can agree.

Bibliography

Beck, Peter J., Presenting History; Past and Present, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2012

Cannadine, David, ed., History and the Media, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2004

Edward Hallett Carr, What Is History? Penguin Books, London, 1961

Cauvin, Thomas, Public History, a Textbook of Practice, Routledge, Abingdon, 2016

De Groot, Jerome, Consuming History, Routledge, Abingdon, 2016

Garrard, Thomas, and Tovey, Samuel Griffiths (ed.), Colston, the Philanthropist: His Life and Times, J Chilcott, Bristol, 1852

Harrison, Rodney, ed., Understanding the Politics of Heritage, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2010

Hayton, David, Cruickshanks, Eveline, and Handley, Stuart, The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1690-1715, Cambridge University Press, April 2006

Hochschild, Adam, Bury the Chains, Mariner Books, New York, 2006

Sayer, Faye, Public History, A Practical Guide, Bloomsbury, London, 2016

Tosh, John, The Pursuit of History, Routledge, Abingdon, 2015

Trimm, Ryan, Heritage and the Legacy of the Past in Contemporary Britain, Routledge, 2017

Websites and Web Documents

Bristol, a City Divided, Ethnic Inequalities in Bristol, Manchester and Barking and Dagenham, Runnymede Trust, https://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/CoDE%20Briefing%20Bristol%20v2.pdf, accessed 18/04/2018

Bristol Radical History Group, History Walk: Edward Colston, Why is our city dominated by this man’s legacy? https://www.brh.org.uk/site/events/history-walk-edward-colston/, accessed 13/04/2018

Bristol Radical History Group, Edward Colston Research Paper #1, Calculating the number of enslaved Africans transported by the Royal African Company during Edward Colston’s involvement (1680-92), Roger Ball, https://www.brh.org.uk/site/articles/edward-colston-research-paper-1/, accessed 13/04/2018

Bristol Radical History Group, Edward Colston Research Paper #2, The Royal African Company and Edward Colston (1680-92), Roger Ball, https://www.brh.org.uk/site/articles/edward-colston-research-paper-2/, accessed 13/04/2018

Bristol Radical History Group, Slavery, The Hidden History, 2007, http://www.brh.org.uk/site/event-series/slavery-the-hidden-history-slavery-the-hidden-history/, accessed 13/04/2018

Bristol’s Colston Hall is an affront to a multicultural city seite zum herunterladen von youtube musik. Let’s rename it now. David Olusoga, The Guardian, 26 Feb 2017, accessed 13/04/2018.

Bristol’s Colston Hall ‘an affront to a multicultural city’ and must be renamed, says David Olusoga, Marc Cooper, Bristol Post, 27/02/2017, https://www.bristolpost.co.uk/news/bristol-news/bristols-colston-hall-an-affront-3214, accessed 13/04/2018

Bristol torn apart over statue of Edward Colston, Paul Gallagher, The Independent, 22 June 2014, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/bristol-torn-apart-over-statue-of-edward-colston-but-is-this-a-figure-of-shame-or-a-necessary-9555333.html, accessed 18/04/2018.

Colston Hall row: Campaigners want Bristol’s famous concert venue named after slave trader to be renamed. Patrick Sawer, The Telegraph, 18 Feb 2017, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/18/calls-rename-famous-concert-venue-named-slave-trader/, accessed 12/04/2018

Countering Colston campaign website, https://counteringcolston.wordpress.com, accessed 12/04/2018

For his links to slavery, Edward Colston has become he-who-must-not-be-named, The Spectator, Will Heaven, 23/10/2017, https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2017/10/for-his-links-to-slavery-edward-colston-has-become-he-who-must-not-be-named/, accessed 13/04/2018

Headteacher of school founded by slave trader Edward Colston says he refuses to ‘obscure history’ by changing its name, The Telegraph, Camilla Turner, 02/11/2017, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2017/11/02/headteacher-school-founded-slavetrader-edward-colston-says-refuses/, accessed 13/04/2018

Historic Bristol music venue Colston Hall ditches name shared with ‘toxic’ slave trader. Could the Colston bun be next? Robert Mendick, The Telegraph, 26 April 2017, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/04/26/historic-music-venue-colston-hall-ditches-name-shared-toxic/, accessed 12/04/2018

Historic England Inclusive Heritage: The Slave Trade and Abolition: Sites of Memory: Bristol & the South West, https://historicengland.org.uk/research/inclusive-heritage/the-slave-trade-and-abolition/sites-of-memory/slave-traders-and-plantation-wealth/bristol-and-the-south-west/, accessed 12/04/2018

History of Parliament Online, http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1690-1715/member/colston-edward-ii-1636-1721, accessed 12/04/18

National curriculum in England Statutory guidance: history programmes of study, Gov.uk, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-history-programmes-of-study, accessed 13/04/2018

Port Cities Bristol, Bristol and Transatlantic Slavery, http://www.discoveringbristol.org.uk/slavery/, accessed 13/04/2018

Portraits, People and Abolition, The National Portrait Gallery, https://www.npg.org.uk/learning/digital/history/abolition-of-slavery/, accessed 12/04/2018

Renamed and shamed: taking on Britain’s slave-trade past, from Colston Hall to Penny Lane, The Guardian, Emine Saner, 29/04/2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/29/renamed-and-shamed-taking-on-britains-slave-trade-past-from-colston-hall-to-penny-lane, accessed 13/04/2018

Socialist Appeal, The season of giving: philanthropy or exploitation? James Kilby, 17/12/2015, https://www.socialist.net/the-season-of-giving-philanthropy-or-exploitation.htm, accessed 12/04/2018

Sources and Slavery in Bristol, Dr Madge Dresser, http://humanities.uwe.ac.uk/bhr/Main/f_slavetrade.htm, accessed 12/04/2018

Sweet History, the impact of the sugar and slave trades on the built environment of Bristol, http://www.sweethistory.org/, accessed 12/04/2018

The real meaning of Rhodes Must Fall, Amit Chaudhuri,16/03/2016, https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/mar/16/the-real-meaning-of-rhodes-must-fall/, accessed 12/04/2018

Understanding Slavery, Bristol and Slave Trade Case Study, http://understandingslavery.com/index.php-option=com_content&view=article&id=370&Itemid=229.html, accessed 12/04/2018

What Do We Tell Our Children About Slavery? Janus Adams, Huffington Post, 19/08/2013, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/janus-adams/what-do-we-tell-our-children-about-slavery_b_3461209.html, accessed 12/04/2018


Footnotes

[1] David Hayton, Eveline Cruickshanks, and Stuart Handley, The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1690-1715, Cambridge University Press, April 2006, also online at http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1690-1715/member/colston-edward-ii-1636-1721, accessed 12/04/18.

[2] Thomas Garrard and Samuel Griffiths Tovey (ed.), Colston, the Philanthropist: His Life and Times, J Chilcott, Bristol, 1852

[3] Bristol Slavery, Andrew Nash, 2002-2004, http://www.flocs.com:80/websites/bristolslavery/people/colston.htm, accessed 12/04/2018

[4] This definition is generally attributed to Napoleon Bonaparte, recalled in a conversation with Emmanuel, Comte de Las Cases, 1816, Memorial de Sainte Helene, 4, p. 251

[5] Bristol Radical History Group, History Walk: Edward Colston, Why is our city dominated by this man’s legacy? https://www.brh.org.uk/site/events/history-walk-edward-colston/, accessed 13/04/2018

[6] Edward Colston: The slave trader dividing Bristol, BBC Bristol, Pamela Parkes, 26/02/2018, accessed 13/04/2018.

[7] Renamed and shamed: taking on Britain’s slave-trade past, from Colston Hall to Penny Lane, The Guardian, Emine Saner, 29/04/2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/29/renamed-and-shamed-taking-on-britains-slave-trade-past-from-colston-hall-to-penny-lane, accessed 13/04/2018

[8] Colston Hall row: Campaigners want Bristol’s famous concert venue named after slave trader to be renamed. Patrick Sawer, The Telegraph, 18 Feb 2017, wording on banners waved by protestors, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/18/calls-rename-famous-concert-venue-named-slave-trader/, accessed 12/04/2018

[9] Socialist Appeal, The season of giving: philanthropy or exploitation spiel herunterladen origin? James Kilby, 17/12/2015, https://www.socialist.net/the-season-of-giving-philanthropy-or-exploitation.htm, accessed 12/04/2018

[10] Carr, Edward Hallett, What Is History? Penguin Books, London, 1961

[11] National curriculum in England Statutory guidance: history programmes of study, Gov.uk, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-history-programmes-of-study, accessed 13/04/2018

[12] Janus Adams, What Do We Tell Our Children About Slavery? Huffington Post, 19/08/2013, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/janus-adams/what-do-we-tell-our-children-about-slavery_b_3461209.html, accessed 12/04/2018

[13] Understanding Slavery,Bristol and Slave Trade Case Study, http://understandingslavery.com/index.php-option=com_content&view=article&id=370&Itemid=229.html, accessed 12/04/2018

[14] Bristol torn apart over statue of Edward Colston, Paul Gallagher, The Independent, 22 June 2014, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/bristol-torn-apart-over-statue-of-edward-colston-but-is-this-a-figure-of-shame-or-a-necessary-9555333.html, accessed 18/04/2018

[15] For his links to slavery, Edward Colston has become he-who-must-not-be-named, The Spectator, Will Heaven, 23/10/2017, https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2017/10/for-his-links-to-slavery-edward-colston-has-become-he-who-must-not-be-named/, accessed 13/04/2018

[16] Headteacher of school founded by slave trader Edward Colston says he refuses to ‘obscure history’ by changing its name, The Telegraph, Camilla Turner, 02/11/2017, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2017/11/02/headteacher-school-founded-slavetrader-edward-colston-says-refuses/, accessed 13/04/2018

[17] Colston’s Primary School makes decision on removing controversial slave trader’s name, Bristol Post, Michael Yong, 01/12/2017, https://www.bristolpost.co.uk/news/bristol-news/colstons-primary-school-makes-decision-864514, accessed 13/04/2018

[18] Historic England, Inclusive Heritage: The Slave Trade and Abolition: Sites of Memory: Bristol & the South West, https://historicengland.org.uk/research/inclusive-heritage/the-slave-trade-and-abolition/sites-of-memory/slave-traders-and-plantation-wealth/bristol-and-the-south-west/, accessed 12/04/2018

[19] Portraits, People and Abolition, The National Portrait Gallery, https://www.npg.org.uk/learning/digital/history/abolition-of-slavery/, accessed 12/04/2018

[20] Ryan Trimm, Heritage and the Legacy of the Past in Contemporary Britain, Routledge, 2017

[21] Bristol Radical History Group, Slavery, The Hidden History, 2007, http://www.brh.org.uk/site/event-series/slavery-the-hidden-history-slavery-the-hidden-history/, accessed 13/04/2018

[22] Bristol, a City Divided, Ethnic Inequalities in Bristol, Manchester and Barking and Dagenham, Runnymede Trust, https://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/CoDE%20Briefing%20Bristol%20v2.pdf, accessed 18/04/2018

[23] Sources and Slavery in Bristol, Madge Dresser, http://humanities.uwe.ac.uk/bhr/Main/f_slavetrade.htm, accessed 12/04/2018

[24] Bristol’s Colston Hall is an affront to a multicultural city. Let’s rename it now. David Olusoga, The Guardian, 26 Feb 2017, accessed 13/04/2018.

[25] https://www.bristolpost.co.uk/news/bristol-news/prominent-tory-renaming-bristols-colston-4259

[26] Edward Colston: The slave trader dividing Bristol, BBC Bristol, Pamela Parkes, 26/02/2018, accessed 13/04/2018.

[27] Countering Colston, https://counteringcolston.wordpress.com/who-celebrates-colston/, accessed 13/04/2018.

[28] Edward Colston: The slave trader dividing Bristol, BBC Bristol, Pamela Parkes, 26/02/2018, accessed 13/04/2018.

[29] Renamed and shamed: taking on Britain’s slave-trade past, from Colston Hall to Penny Lane, The Guardian, Emine Saner, 29/04/2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/29/renamed-and-shamed-taking-on-britains-slave-trade-past-from-colston-hall-to-penny-lane, accessed 13/04/2018

[30] Bristol’s Colston Hall is an affront to a multicultural city. Let’s rename it now. David Olusoga, The Guardian, 26 Feb 2017, accessed 13/04/2018.

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