Agreement Salt 1

It was the first agreement between the United States and the USSR that limited and restricted their nuclear weapons systems. Intensive research has been undertaken to examine the modalities of a possible agreement without the need for access to the territory of the other party. Both the ABM Treaty and the interim agreement stipulate that compliance must be ensured by “national technical verification means”. In addition, the agreements contain provisions that are important measures to enhance the security of offences: both parties agree not to interfere in national technical control. In addition, both countries agree not to take deliberate cover-up measures to impede the review. Both agreements were accompanied by a series of “consensual declarations” agreed and paraphrased by the heads of delegations. When both agreements were submitted to the U.S. Congress, they were also accompanied by joint agreements and unilateral declarations made during the negotiations. These should clarify specific provisions of the agreements or parts of the negotiating protocol. After the initial attempts to reach a comprehensive agreement failed, the Soviets tried to limit negotiations to anti-ballistic missile systems and said restrictions on offensive systems should be postponed. The American position was that limiting ABM systems, but allowing full growth of offensive weapons, would be inconsistent with SALT`s core objectives and that it was important to make at least a start in limiting offensive systems. A long deadlock on this issue was finally broken by trade at the highest levels of both governments.

On May 20, 1971, Washington and Moscow announced that an agreement had been reached to focus on a permanent contract limiting ABM systems, while extending certain restrictions on offensive systems and continuing negotiations for a broader and long-term agreement on them. Even after the Vladivostok agreements, the two nations were unable to resolve the other two outstanding issues of SALT I: the number of strategic bombers and the total number of warheads in each nation`s arsenal. The first was made more difficult by the Soviet Bomber Backfire, which American negotiators thought could reach the United States, but which the Soviets did not want to include in the SALT negotiations. Meanwhile, the Soviets tried unsuccessfully to limit the American use of cruise air missiles (ALCMs). The audit also divided the two nations, but they eventually agreed on the use of National Technical Means (NTM), including the collection of electronic signals known as telemetry and the use of photo recognition satellites. On June 17, 1979, Carter and Brezhnev signed the SALT II Treaty in Vienna. Salt II limited the total number of nuclear forces from both countries to 2,250 delivery vehicles and imposed numerous additional restrictions on core strategic forces, including MIRVs. As its title states, “the interim agreement between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on certain measures to limit offensive weapons” was limited in duration and scope.

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